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Hello friends, today I am going to say something about the stock market. Friends, when we are working in the stock market, watching news in newspapers and. Read about the markets, trading concepts, and technical trading strategies. know to succeed in the markets, equity, fixed income, currency, commodity. CFI's investing and trading book is free and available for anyone to download as a pdf. Example: An investor places a market order to download. shares of XYZ stock when the best offer price is $ per share. If other orders are executed first.

Investors then download and sell these stocks among themselves, and the exchange tracks the supply and demand of each listed stock. That supply and demand help determine the price for each security, or the levels at which stock market participants — investors and traders — are willing to download or sell.

Computer algorithms generally do most of those calculations.

This difference is called the bid-ask spread. For a trade to occur, a downloader needs to increase his price or a seller needs to decrease hers. These days, the stock market works electronically, through the internet and online stockbrokers.

Each trade happens on a stock-by-stock basis, but overall stock prices often move in tandem because of news, political events, economic reports and other factors. Apart from the economic advantages and disadvantages of stock exchanges — the advantage that they provide a free flow of capital to finance industrial expansion, for instance, and the disadvantage that they provide an all too convenient way for the unlucky, the imprudent, and the gullible to lose their money — their development has created a whole pattern of social behavior, complete with customs, language, and predictable responses to given events.

What is truly extraordinary is the speed with which this pattern emerged full blown following the establishment, in , of the world's first important stock exchange — a roofless courtyard in Amsterdam — and the degree to which it persists with variations, it is true on the New York Stock Exchange in the nineteen-sixties.

Present-day stock trading in the United States — a bewilderingly vast enterprise, involving millions of miles of private telegraph wires, computers that can read and copy the Manhattan Telephone Directory in three minutes, and over twenty million stockholder participants — would seem to be a far cry from a handful of seventeenth-century Dutchmen haggling in the rain.

How does the stock market work?

But the field marks are much the same. The first stock exchange was, inadvertently, a laboratory in which new human reactions were revealed. By the same token, the New York Stock Exchange is also a sociological test tube, forever contributing to the human species' self-understanding. Yet the title of the world's first stock market deservedly goes to that of seventeenth-century Amsterdam, where an active secondary market in company shares emerged.

Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market.

Curott, in "The Oxford Handbook of Austrian Economics" [On the Origins of Stock Markets] [32] In the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch pioneered several financial innovations that helped lay the foundations of the modern financial system.

Soon thereafter, a lively trade in various derivatives , among which options and repos, emerged on the Amsterdam market. Crowd gathering on Wall Street New York City after the crash , one of the worst stock market crashes in history.

Within the Communist countries , the spectrum of socialism ranged from the quasi-market, quasi- syndicalist system of Yugoslavia to the centralized totalitarianism of neighboring Albania. One time I asked Professor von Mises , the great expert on the economics of socialism, at what point on this spectrum of statism would he designate a country as "socialist" or not.

At that time, I wasn't sure that any definite criterion existed to make that sort of clear-cut judgment. And so I was pleasantly surprised at the clarity and decisiveness of Mises's answer. For it means that there is a functioning market in the exchange of private titles to the means of production.

There can be no genuine private ownership of capital without a stock market: there can be no true socialism if such a market is allowed to exist. The liquidity that an exchange affords the investors enables their holders to quickly and easily sell securities.

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This is an attractive feature of investing in stocks, compared to other less liquid investments such as property and other immoveable assets. History has shown that the price of stocks and other assets is an important part of the dynamics of economic activity, and can influence or be an indicator of social mood. An economy where the stock market is on the rise is considered to be an up-and-coming economy. The stock market is often considered the primary indicator of a country's economic strength and development.

Share prices also affect the wealth of households and their consumption. Therefore, central banks tend to keep an eye on the control and behavior of the stock market and, in general, on the smooth operation of financial system functions. This eliminates the risk to an individual downloader or seller that the counterparty could default on the transaction. In this way the financial system is assumed to contribute to increased prosperity, although some controversy exists as to whether the optimal financial system is bank-based or market-based.

One feature of this development is disintermediation. A portion of the funds involved in saving and financing, flows directly to the financial markets instead of being routed via the traditional bank lending and deposit operations.

Art of Stock Investing (Indian Stock Market)

The general public interest in investing in the stock market, either directly or through mutual funds , has been an important component of this process. Statistics show that in recent decades, shares have made up an increasingly large proportion of households' financial assets in many countries. In the s, in Sweden , deposit accounts and other very liquid assets with little risk made up almost 60 percent of households' financial wealth, compared to less than 20 percent in the s.

The major part of this adjustment is that financial portfolios have gone directly to shares but a good deal now takes the form of various kinds of institutional investment for groups of individuals, e.

The trend towards forms of saving with a higher risk has been accentuated by new rules for most funds and insurance, permitting a higher proportion of shares to bonds. Similar tendencies are to be found in other developed countries. The valuation of securities is useful for investors, government and creditors. The investors can know the value of their investment, the creditors can value the credit worthiness and government can impose taxes on value of securites.

B Economic Barometer : Any stock exchange in the world is a reliable barometer to measure the economic condition of any country like India. Every major change in country and economic is reflected in the boom or recession cycle of the economy. Stock market is also known as a pulse of economic mirror reflects the economic conditions of a country.

C Contributes to Economic Growth : In stock market Securities of various companies are bought and sold and this process of disinvestment and reinvestment helps to invest in most productive investment proposal and this leads to capital formation and economic growth.

D Safety in Stock Exchange : In stock exchange only the listed securities are traded and stock market authorities include the companies names in the trade list only after verifying the soundness of company. The companies which are listed they also have to operate within the strict rules and regulations. This ensures safety of dealing through stock market.

Stock market

To ensure liquidity and demand of supply of securities the stock market permits healthy speculation of securities. F Better Allocation of Capital : The share of profit making companies are quoted at higher prices and are actively traded so much companies can easily raise fresh capital from Stock exchange.

The general public hesitates to invest in securities of loss making companies. So, Stock market facilitates allocation of investor's fund to profitable channels. G Liquidity and Stock Market : The main function of stock market is to provide ready market for sale and download of securities.

The presence of stock market gives assurance to investors that their investment can be converted into cash whenever they want. The investors can invest in long term investment projects without any hesitation, as because of Stock market they can convert long term investment into short term and medium term.

H Saving and Investment : The Stock market promotes or offers attractive opportunities of saving and investment in various securities. These opportunities encourage people to save more and invest in Securities of corporate sector rather than investing in unproductive assets such as gold, silver, etc.

Stock Market and Modern Financial System : The financial system under stock market in most of the countries has undergone a remarkable transformation generally in western countries.

One features of this development is disintermediation. A portion of the funds involved in saving and financing, flows directly to the financial markets instead of being routed via the traditional bank lending and deposit operations.

The general public interest in investing in the Stock market, either directly or through mutual funds, has been an important component of this process.During this period several other exchanges were launched and some of does not which were closed also. As per the SEBI guide- articles of lines, new companies can offer shares to the public at a agreement premium, provided: B Economic Barometer : Any stock exchange in the world is a reliable barometer to measure the economic condition of any country like India.

Other companies existed, but they were not as large and constituted a small portion of the stock market. These securities may be issued in the domestic market or in the international mar- ket.

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